A brief, informative explanation of the results of laboratory blood and urine tests:
White Blood Cell (WBC): cells of the immune system; elevated levels can indicate infection or leukemia, decreased levels can be seen in certain conditions and as a result of certain medications (e.g. corticosteroids)
Neutrophil%: an increase often suggests a bacterial infection but can also indicate leukemia; decreased levels can be seen in hematopoietic disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol consumption, and certain viral infections (hepatitis, HIV)
LUC%: "large, immature white blood cell forms"; increased levels can indicate infection or leukemia
Lymphocyte%: immune cells specialized against viruses: an increased level indicates viral infection or leukemia, a decreased number can suggest malnutrition, cancerous- and autoimmune diseases.
Monocyte%: their role is to destroy pathogens and cancer cells; causes for their increase include infections, autoimmune- and cancerous diseases, while a decrease can be caused by hematopoietic diseases, chemotherapy, autoimmune diseases
Basophil%: they play a role in triggering allergic reactions, in immune defense, and wound healing; an increase may suggest hypothyroidism or hematopoietic disease, while a decrease may indicate hyperthyroidism or allergic reaction
LUC, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Basophil: while the above values show their percentage within the total white blood cell count, here their absolute value/number is visible
Eosinophil: immune cells, which get activated in cases of worm-, and parasite infections, then, as well as in atopic-, autoimmune and cancerous diseases, their increase is expected
Red Blood Cell (RBC): the blood element that carries oxygen; a decrease can suggest anemia, bleeding, kidney disease, an increase can indicate obstructive lung disease or a hematopoietic error affecting the red blood cells
Hemoglobin: the molecule found in red blood cells to which oxygen binds; a decrease indicates anemia, an increase indicates so-called polycythemia
Hematocrit: it gives the proportion of cellular elements in the blood; it also decreases in anemia, and can be elevated in various hematopoietic diseases (e.g. leukemia)
MCV: it shows the average volume of red blood cells; it helps to differentiate between different types of anemia
MCH: it measures the average hemoglobin content of red blood cells; a decreased level suggests anemia, an elevated level can indicate nutritional deficiency
MCHC: it looks at the average hemoglobin concentration of red blood cells; see MCH for deviations
RDW-CV: it informs about the size and shape of red blood cells; liver disease, anemia, nutritional deficiencies can all affect its value
Platelet: blood elements that play a role in blood clotting; if there are too few, it can lead to bleeding, if there are too many, it can lead to the formation of blood clots
MPV: it gives the average volume of platelets; if the size of the platelets is too large, it increases the risk of heart attack and stroke, if it's too small, it can lead to bleeding
Glucose: blood sugar level; changes -either decreased or too high- indicate a carbohydrate metabolism disorder, most often diabetes
Urea: a substance produced from the breakdown of amino acids, which is excreted by the kidneys; an elevated level may indicate kidney disease
Creatinine: a by-product of muscle metabolism, which is excreted by the kidneys; used together with urea to assess kidney condition
eGFR-EPI: an indicator of kidney function; a decrease indicates a narrowing of kidney function
Sodium: an ion of the salt-water balance; an elevated value may indicate kidney or heart disease
Potassium: an important ion in our body, which can decrease due to vomiting and diarrhea and can increase in renal failure and Addison's disease; deviation from the normal value can cause dangerous cardiac arrhythmias!
Cholesterol: a building block of all our cells, bile acids, and many hormones; an elevated level leads to heart and vascular diseases
Triglycerides: blood fats/fatty acids found in the blood, the energy supplier of our body; a pathologically elevated value can be observed in diabetes, pancreatitis, kidney failure, and alcoholism
HDL-Cholesterol: the "good" cholesterol, which transports cholesterol deposited in the blood and vessel walls to the liver, where it can be excreted from the body; a low value increases the risk of cardiovascular disease
LDL-Cholesterol: the "bad" cholesterol; it transports cholesterol from the liver to the cells, which, when deposited in the arteries, causes arteriosclerosis, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases
GOT: see Gamma-GT
GPT: see Gamma-GT
Gamma-GT: all three are part of the liver panel, their elevated values indicate impairment of liver function, whether of viral, alcoholic, toxic, or hypoxic origin
Urine pH : indicates the chemistry of urine, its differences may indicate lung, kidney or metabolic abnormalities. Elevated pH is characteristic of urinary tract infections.
Urine specific gravity : shows the kidney's ability to concentrate; its value depends on the amount of fluid taken in, the condition of the kidneys and the level of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).
Urine sugar : urine does not normally contain sugar, but if it does, it indicates diabetes or a pre-diabetes condition
Urine ketone bodies : molecules that increase in diabetes and appear in the urine
Nitrite : its positivity indicates a urinary tract infection
Urobilinog. (UBG) and
Urine bilirubin : elevated values may indicate diseases of bile and liver origin, as well as red blood cell breakdown
White blood cell : a symptom of inflammation of the kidney, urinary tract, or, in men, the prostate
Urine protein : its positivity indicates kidney disease (normally, the kidney does not pass protein molecules from the blood, so it is not present in the urine or only in very small amounts)
Urine blood : refers to bleeding in the kidney or urinary tract, the cause of which can be: infection, stone, tumor, etc. (in women, it can also be positive due to incorrect sampling during menstruation)
The content of each allergy and intolerance test includes:
Milk, dairy products: alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, buffalo milk, sheep's milk, casein, goat's milk, cow's milk, egg white, egg yolk
Fish, seafood: aji fish, seaweed espaguette, spirulina algae, wakame algae, eel, snail, pike, dorado, black bass, codfish, scallop, spotted codfish, shrimp, herring, lobster, mussel, oyster, swordfish, caviar, blue mussel, clam, salmon, flounder, mackerel, sunfish, oyster, monkfish, trout, octopus, carp, turbot, bass, sardine, cockle, cuttlefish, squid, tuna, cod
Fruits: apple, pineapple, avocado, banana, lemon, cherry, date, strawberry, guava, blackberry, blackcurrant, fig, watermelon, pomegranate, grapefruit, guava, kiwi, pear, lychee, lime, raspberry, mandarin, mango, raisin, orange, nectarine, olive, peach, papaya, tomato, rhubarb, currant, apricot, melon, mulberry, plum, grape, cranberry
Herbs and Spices: aloe vera, anise, bay leaf, basil, mixed pepper (black/white), peppermint, cayenne pepper, nettle, curry, licorice, cinnamon, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, ginger, thyme, chamomile, dill, hops, coriander, cumin, marjoram, mint, mustard seed, parsley, rosemary, saffron, clove, nutmeg, tarragon, vanilla, red chili, sage
Meats: lamb, buffalo, veal, chicken, pork, partridge, quail, duck, goat, horse, beef, rabbit, turkey, venison, ostrich, wild boar
Vegetables: amaranth, artichoke, pea, broccoli, potato, beet, chicory, chickpea, zucchini, sweet potato, fennel (leaf), white bean, white carrot, lettuce, onion, cabbage, red cabbage, caper, cauliflower, pumpkin, chard, cassava, shallot, eggplant, pepper, leek, radish, arugula, carrot, asparagus, spinach, broad bean, soybean, cucumber, horseradish, red kidney bean, celery, green bean, Brussels sprout, lentil
Nuts: walnut, pine nut, peanut, cashew, coconut, macadamia nut, almond, hazelnut, Brazil nut, pistachio, tiger nut
Cereals: barley, wheat, wheat bran, durum wheat, gliadin, semolina (polenta), millet, corn, couscous, flaxseed, malt, buckwheat, quinoa, rice, rye flour, spelt, transglutaminase, oat
Others: tea (black), tea (green), agar-agar, yeast (baking), yeast (beer), chestnut, cocoa bean, mushroom, coffee, cola nut, honey, cane sugar, sunflower seed, rapeseed, carob, sesame seed, tapioca
Apple, lamb, Brazil nut, broccoli, potato, wheat, chicken, melon mix, walnut, durum wheat, freshwater fish (salmon, trout), yeast, white fish mix (cod and flounder), blackcurrant, garlic, peanut, strawberry, gluten, mushroom, grapefruit, ginger, shellfish and crab, cocoa bean, cabbage, cashew, corn, almond, beef, orange and lemon, olive, pepper mix (red, green, yellow), tomato, leek, rice, rye flour, carrot, pork, soybean, tea, cow's milk, egg, tuna, cucumber, oat, celery, vegetable (pea, lentil, bean).
Alder pollen, birch pollen, hazel pollen, oak pollen, willow pollen, brush mould (Penicillium notatum), sooty mould (Cladosporium herbarum), Aspergillus fumigatus mould, yeast fungus, Alternaria tenius fungus, dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssin), cat hair-skin, dog skin, feather species, meadow foxtail, rye pollen, mixed poultry feathers (goose, chicken, duck, turkey), ragweed, mugwort, plantain pollen.
Cat hair/skin, horse hair, cattle hair, dog skin, guinea pig skin, rabbit skin, hamster skin, rat skin, mouse skin, mixed poultry feathers (goose, chicken, duck, turkey), brush mould (Penicillium notatum), sooty mould (Cladosporium herbarum), Aspergillus fumigatus mould, yeast fungus, Alternaria tenius fungus, ragweed, mugwort, meadow daisy, dandelion, goldenrod, alder pollen, hazel pollen, poplar pollen, willow pollen, poplar tree pollen, maple pollen, birch pollen, beech tree pollen, oak pollen, walnut tree pollen, dust mite (D. pteronyssius), dust mite (D. farinae), house dust, cockroach, plantain pollen, thistle pollen, meadow foxtail pollen, sheep sorrel pollen, grass mix (timothy grass, ryegrass, English ryegrass, meadow foxtail), grass mix (spring vetchling, English ryegrass, reed, cultivated rye, feathered reed grass).
Egg, cow's milk, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, codfish, wheat flour, peanut, soy, tomato, carrot, potato, orange, apple, banana, peach, sesame seed, shellfish, beef, kiwi, celery, almond, hazelnut.
pork, beef, chicken, lamb, tomato, carrot, potato, mustard, cod, crab, blue mussel, tuna, salmon, kiwi, mango, pineapple, orange, apple, banana, peach, cow's milk, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin , casein, sesame seeds, baker's yeast, garlic, celery, hazelnuts, tomatoes, almonds, coconuts, peanuts, eggs, goat's milk, rye flour, oats, corn, buckwheat, wheat flour
Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological culture (lab sampling fee not included)18 700 Ft
Food intolerance test from blood: against 221 foods (lab sampling fee not included)96 090 Ft
Food intolerance tests from blood: against 46 foods (lab sampling fee not included)39 200 Ft
Inhalative allergen specific test from blood - 20 (lab sampling fee not included)13 840 Ft
Inhalative allergen specific test from blood - 40 (lab sampling fee not included)18 450 Ft
Insulin resistance test, 3 points (lab sample handling fee not included)15 730 Ft
Laboratory sampling fee (for each laboratory visit)4 000 Ft
Nutritional allergen specific test from blood - 20 (lab sampling fee not included)13 840 Ft
Nutritional allergen specific test from blood - 40 (lab sampling fee not included)18 450 Ft
Starch test, with 4 blood samples (lab sample handling fee not included)8 750 Ft