What you should know about diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disease, a complex disorder of the body's use of sugar: instead of entering cells, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream. Diabetes develops when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin - which is the key to getting glucose into the cells - (type 1), or when the cells become insensitive to the glucose-inducing effect of insulin (type 2). If not treated properly, diabetes can lead to serious complications throughout the body. With extensive examinations and diagnostic services, the specialists of the Duna Medical Center can help you find out how at risk you are and what treatments you may need.
What you should know about diabetes

How can it develop?

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing islets of the pancreas, so that not enough insulin reaches the bloodstream. This type of diabetes patients approx. It affects 10%, is determined by a hereditary predisposition and mostly occurs as a result of autoimmune processes triggered by a viral infection. Its symptoms most often appear in childhood and young adulthood (between the ages of 0 and 35). The cause of type 2 diabetes is that certain fat cells multiply and grow, especially in the abdomen, and the hormone-like substances they produce make the body's tissues insensitive to insulin. About 90% of diabetics are affected by this form of diabetes and it usually develops at an older age.


His treatment

Type 1 diabetes can be treated with insulin replacement, which must be done carefully and in accordance with medical prescription. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the disease is often asymptomatic at the beginning, and is often diagnosed in connection with the appearance of various complications. The disease can be treated in the early stages with lifestyle changes, then with blood sugar-lowering and insulin-increasing preparations. At a later stage, insulin replacement may become necessary.



Permanently high blood sugar levels caused by diabetes can have serious consequences: even blindness, atherosclerosis, leg amputation, heart attack and impotence can occur. In diabetes patients, the frequency and severity of cardiovascular diseases can increase significantly. Don't be fooled by the fact that type 2 diabetes only causes symptoms later or that insulin is not always necessary for its treatment, despite this, it is a serious disease: it can shorten life expectancy by up to 10-15 years.

How to live with diabetes?

In order to maintain the status of diabetes, control symptoms and prevent possible complications, it is necessary for the attending physician to regularly monitor the patient's condition. It is essential that the patient follows the doctor's instructions, as otherwise serious complications can occur, which can shorten the life of diabetics and make their everyday life miserable.

Areas of expertise that directly or indirectly deal with complications of diabetes:


The first signs of diabetes can also be skin symptoms. Diabetes can be accompanied by various non-specific skin symptoms, which can sometimes precede other symptoms of the disease. The symptoms appearing on the skin may indicate that there may be pathological changes in the internal organs as well. In such cases, an ophthalmological, renal or neurological examination becomes especially justified. People suffering from diabetes need to pay more attention to minor changes on the skin, and if they experience anything unusual, they need to see a specialist.



Type 1 diabetes occurs most often in children. It often develops after a viral infection, in young people who are genetically predisposed to it. In addition, more and more obese children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes these days. The reason for this is an unhealthy, sedentary lifestyle, especially the consumption of foods rich in crystalline sugars, sweets and sugary soft drinks can contribute to its development. If you notice warning signs of diabetes in your child, it is recommended to consult a doctor immediately. Such symptoms include, for example, an agonizing thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, itchy skin on the lower body, and weight loss despite a good appetite.


Wound treatment

Diabetes can also cause changes in the nervous system (neuropathy), as a result of which the injuries are often painless, and the patient often does not even notice them. A weakened immune system reduces resistance to infections, and difficulty in blood flow can slow down the healing process. No matter how insignificant the injury may seem, diabetics need to be careful. The wound must be attended to immediately and it is advisable to have it checked by a doctor, as it is much easier to correct the problem at this time than when it has already become serious.



Diabetes affects the menstrual cycle, it can result in an irregular cycle and since the menstrual cycle also affects the metabolism, it can become even more unstable. In women, libido may decrease, orgasm may be missed more often, and fungal growth in the genital area may occur more often. Contraception also becomes more complicated for them, because hormonal contraceptives are not recommended for them due to their effect on metabolism.


Diabetes and childbearing

It is worth having your blood sugar level checked already when you are planning to have a child. Diagnostic tests are also recommended for those with increased risks (e.g. heredity, obesity). Undiagnosed diabetes can reduce the chance of pregnancy and increase the risk of miscarriage in the first three months and can even cause severe developmental abnormalities in the fetus. In the later stages of pregnancy, high blood sugar can lead to a large increase in the weight of the fetus (up to 4 kg), which poses a risk for both the baby and the mother during childbirth, and they are more likely to have a caesarean section. In the case of diabetes, the frequency of premature birth is also higher. For those who want to start a family with already diagnosed diabetes, it is important to consult a diabetologist a year and a half before the planned pregnancy, because it may be necessary to change the medication.

Diabetes can develop even during pregnancy. 24-28 for screening for gestational diabetes. takes place between weeks of pregnancy. In the case of an abnormally high result, it is necessary to normalize the values with a low-carbohydrate diet, and in severe cases with the administration of insulin. In the case of gestational diabetes, the blood sugar level usually normalizes after childbirth, but later on, regular, yearly screening of the mother is recommended. According to surveys, the risk of developing diabetes within 5-15 years after giving birth is more common among mothers who have had gestational diabetes.



Diabetes is often accompanied by impaired vision or even complete loss of vision. These ophthalmic complications usually develop slowly, gradually, in a way that is difficult for the patient to detect, so the problem is often diagnosed only when it is only partially or completely untreatable. For this reason, it is extremely important to participate in regular screening tests, especially for those who have already been diagnosed with the disease. Complications leading to blindness can be avoided with an annual screening test.


At least half of diabetics may develop some kind of sensory loss or neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy can result in partial or complete loss of sensation, or even immobility. Damage to the nerves of the legs is common, and if it affects the stomach, it can cause continuous nausea, affect bladder control and cause impotence. Damage to the sensory nerves can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, and reduced or no sensation at all.


Diabetes can also affect the urinary organs. Chronic inflammation of the renal pelvis and bladder is not uncommon due to bacteria that multiply more easily as a result of higher blood sugar levels. However, the most common urological change in men is fungal inflammation of the genital organ, which can also be the first sign of diabetes and, in the absence of proper treatment, can cause narrowing of the foreskin. Erectile dysfunction can also occur as an additional complication.


Cardiovascular complications

As diabetes progresses, problems resulting from increased atherosclerosis become more and more common: the most common are heart attacks, cerebral infarctions, and limb vascular disorders, but kidney function and visual disturbances can also be related to vascular calcification. Arteriosclerosis in the extremities can lead to impaired blood supply and sooner or later death. Death begins at the toes and may spread upward. If the patient does not receive adequate care in time, amputation may become necessary. Metabolic changes due to the disease can lead to weakening of the heart muscle and cause heart failure.


High blood sugar also damages the kidneys, and their filter units therefore pass larger and larger protein molecules into the urine. A high protein content in the urine can therefore indicate kidney failure. The kidney complication associated with diabetes remains asymptomatic for a long time, so it can only be detected with regular screening tests. In patients whose kidney damage is revealed in time, the start of dialysis treatment can be postponed for even years and their quality of life deteriorates less than in diabetic patients whose problem is recognized late.


Get to know our diabetologists!

You can read about Dr. Judit Nádas here .

You can read about Dr. István Karádi here .

What can we help you with?

You can access the services of our internal medicine/diabetology specialty here .